The distinguished author of this interesting booklet argues forcibly that currency inflation is one of the root causes of trade collapse, and that only by a policy of steady and continuous deflation can recovery be assured. He urges that value must rule and not be at the sport of currency, varying automatically with the value of gold or, arbitrarily, at the will of the Treasury. Currency inflation, he maintains, is essentially undemocratic, and far more disastrous to the poor than to the rich, who are in a position to escape many of its evil consequences.
This book extends recent theories of incomplete markets to investigate empirically the appropriate balance between the market and the state in the trade relations between developed and developing countries. The conclusion is that in an ideal world government intervention in foreign exchange and trade is necessary in developing countries in the early stages and inevitably decreases as development occurs. Rationing of foreign exchange prevents a 'soft currency distortion' that commonly afflicts developing countries and can turn comparative advantage trade into competitive devaluation trade, with severe losses of income and welfare. Yotopoulos finds that the level of underdevelopment narrowly circumscribes and conditions the extent to which free-market, free-trade, laissez-faire can be beneficial, contrary to the mainstream policy paradigm as currently applied. The analysis and tests draw on empirical research from seventy countries and four extended country studies to confirm the usefulness and validity of the theoretical framework.
This book presents detailed case studies of the first commercial internet digital currency systems developed between 1996 and 2004. Transactions completed with the new technology circumvented all US financial regulations, an opening that transnational criminals exploited. Mullan explains how an entire industry of companies, agents, and participants turned a blind eye to crimes being committed in this unsupervised environment. He then tracks the subsequent changes made to US regulations that now prevent such unlicensed activity, illustrating the importance of supervising products and industries that arise from new disruptive technology. This bookÂ distillsÂ hundreds of hours of interviews with the creators and operators of early digital currency businesses to create detailed case studies of their practices.
Are exchange rates determined by economic fundamentals or are they a prey to random speculative forces? Some economists assert that economic theory has so far performed poorly in explaining the dramatic increase in exchange rate volatility in the recent floating rate period. This book argues that modern macroeconomics theory does provide guidelines for understanding exchange rate fluctuations. Since the mid-1990s, there has been an outpouring of research that aims at laying new foundations for open-macroeconomic theory. The so-called "New Open Economy Macroeconomics" (NOEM) approach embeds micro-founded behavior into dynamic general equilibrium models. This provides a rich framework for thinking about exchange rate behavior and lays the groundwork for credible policy evaluation. This book shows how the most recent analytical tools proposed in this literature improve our understanding of exchange rate fluctuations. With contributions from an international array of thinkers, this impressive book shall interest both students and researchers involved with Macroeconomics, Money and Banking as well as all those interested in International Finance, including financial institutions.
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