This book extends recent theories of incomplete markets to investigate empirically the appropriate balance between the market and the state in the trade relations between developed and developing countries. The conclusion is that in an ideal world government intervention in foreign exchange and trade is necessary in developing countries in the early stages and inevitably decreases as development occurs. Rationing of foreign exchange prevents a 'soft currency distortion' that commonly afflicts developing countries and can turn comparative advantage trade into competitive devaluation trade, with severe losses of income and welfare. Yotopoulos finds that the level of underdevelopment narrowly circumscribes and conditions the extent to which free-market, free-trade, laissez-faire can be beneficial, contrary to the mainstream policy paradigm as currently applied. The analysis and tests draw on empirical research from seventy countries and four extended country studies to confirm the usefulness and validity of the theoretical framework.
The distinguished author of this interesting booklet argues forcibly that currency inflation is one of the root causes of trade collapse, and that only by a policy of steady and continuous deflation can recovery be assured. He urges that value must rule and not be at the sport of currency, varying automatically with the value of gold or, arbitrarily, at the will of the Treasury. Currency inflation, he maintains, is essentially undemocratic, and far more disastrous to the poor than to the rich, who are in a position to escape many of its evil consequences.
This work grew out of a series of investigations begun by the authors in 1980 and 1981. Specifically the authors pursued two lines of inquiry. First, to advance the state of the theoretical lit- erature to better explain the crises of liberalization which seemed to be afflicting the third world in general and Latin America in particular. To do this, several different kinds of models were in- vestigated and adapted. These are presented in Chapters 2, 3 and 5. Secondly an analysis of the empirical evidence was conducted in order to gain insight into the processes that were thought to be occurring and the theoretical models that were being developed. Some of this work appears in Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6. Other work by the authors on these issues has been published elsewhere and is referenced herein. There are a great many people whose work and whose com- ments have influenced this work. We would like to especially thank Guillermo Calvo, Michael Connolly, Sebastian Edwards, Roque Fernandez, Michael Darby, Robert Clower, Neil Wallace, John Kareken, Paul McNelis, Jeffrey Nugent, Jaime Marquez, Lee Ohanian, Leroy Laney, Jorge Braga de Macedo, Dale Henderson, vii Matthew Canzoneiri, Arthur Laffer, Marc Miles, and George Von Furstenberg whose ideas and comments gave rise to much of our work. We would like to thank Suh Lee for his assistance with the computations in Chapter 5.
The Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction series treats ion exchange and solvent extraction both as discrete topics and as a unified, multidisciplinary study - presenting new insights for researchers in many chemical and related field. Containing current knowledge and results in ion exchange, this text: presents an overview of the chemical thermodynamics of cation-exchange reactions, with particular emphasis placed on liquid-phase- and solid-phase-activity coefficient models; describes the development of surface complexation theory and its application to the ion exchange phenomenon; discusses metal-natural colloid surface reactions and their consideration by surface complexation modelling complements; and covers the influence of humic substances on the uptake of metal ions by naturally occurring materials.
Money Order Articles
Money Order Books