In recent decades, claims have increasingly been made on transnational corporations to take responsibility for the promotion and protection of human and labour rights in countries where they operate. This behavioural obligation results from the persistent support of non-governmental organizations commonly known as corporate social responsibility (CSR). Theoretically driven by the 'norm life cycle model' and using an interesting range of case studies; Nike, the anti-apartheid movement to name a few, Lisbeth Segerlund traces the development of corporate social responsibility as a international norm, and how this norm has become an issue on the international agenda. This development is examined through five selected non-governmental organizations; Clean Clothes Campaign; Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International; Global Exchange; and, International Business Leaders Forum and the International Labor Rights Fund, each one of them seen as norm entrepreneurs involved in a process of international norm construction. Theres is a lucid contribution to an emerging scholarship on corporate social responsibility which will interest researchers and practitioners directly or indirectly involved in issues of global governance and global civil society.
The Vampire, Witch, and Pirate will sweep you away into an enchanting world of witches, pirates, love, romance, vampires, and fun. This poetry book is best suited for teenagers and adults. Her black raven sings while circling its prey, Enchanting with spells inviting and gay. "What can I give thee in exchange for a debt?" Asks the witch so enticing. "Come hither my pet!" The fairest of maidens, youth's bloom so believing. The cruelest of evil, so lovely-deceiving. Her heart is the blackest-deceptively charming. Her beauty bewitching-divinely disarming. "What ales thee my poppet, sweet maiden so fair?" Says the witch so alluring. "Come close if you dare!"
The massive external debt burden of sub-Sahara Africa has gained widespread attention as a serious policy issue during the past few years. These countries are particularly vulnerable because 1.they have large international borrowing requirements and the resulting external debt is denominated in different currencies; 2.most of their external debt is in obligations with variable interest rates; and 3.their trade in primary commodities is significant. Yet a recent survey by the World Bank revealed that 70 percent of foreign borrowers in developing countries do not hedge their interest rate or exchange rate exposures. In general, the Third World lacks the expertise in the use of recently-developed hedging tools and the understanding of the risk structure of their economies. This book carries out a through analysis of the financial risks characteristics of Nigeria. In addition, a debt composition hedging strategy is developed that minimizes Nigeria's budget exposure to external price shocks. The survey should be useful to developing countries who may be considering utilizing hedging techniques to improve their credit ratings and limit the impact of volatility in global markets.
International trade theory implicitly assumes that countries participating in external trade each have sovereign status. Its failure to recognise the pervasive importance of colonial trade as an intermediate stage of external trade development, interposed between autarky and 'international trade' narrowly defined creates a serious gap In its explanatory structure and direct applicability.
Anthony John's book is an attempt to examine the properties of colonial resource management on the process of territorial specialisation. He considers the implications of such foreign involvement for the trade patterns which may ensue after political independence when formal 'international' trade entry is effected.
Business ethics teaching appears to have had little impact, particularly in the light of continued malpractice and misdemeanour in the form of financial scandals, environmental disasters and adverse consequences for communities. This timely book directly addresses a central question: is it that the existence of an ethical or an unethical climate influences behaviour, or, does the presence or absence of a moral character and personal values have the greatest influence on behaviour at work? Hemingway proposes four modes of individual moral commitment to corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability: the Active Corporate Social Entrepreneur, the Concealed Corporate Social Entrepreneur, the Conformist and the Disassociated. Hemingway posits that the Conformists represent the majority of people in organisations, adhering to the prevailing ethical climate, whatever that might be. However, it is the discovery of the corporate social entrepreneur which offers students and scholars a critical, alternative and optimistic perspective for the future of ethical business.
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