As a world economy emerged from the 16th-17th centuries onwards, a global cashless payment system arose. This had its base in Europe, first in Italy, then in the rising regions of the north-west, with Amsterdam and then London as the central financial market. The mutual quotation of exchange rates, which provide the data tabulated and analysed here, mark the integration into a global network of all areas with significant economic potential. The primary aim of this book is to provide a compact account of the exchange rates in all these financial markets, from the late 16th century up to the First World War. This makes possible an instant conversion between the major world currencies at nearly any date within that period, while the important introduction provides the explanation and context of developments. The present handbook therefore serves as an invaluable resource for those concerned with all aspects of commercial and financial history.
Are exchange rates determined by economic fundamentals or are they a prey to random speculative forces? Some economists assert that economic theory has so far performed poorly in explaining the dramatic increase in exchange rate volatility in the recent floating rate period. This book argues that modern macroeconomics theory does provide guidelines for understanding exchange rate fluctuations. Since the mid-1990s, there has been an outpouring of research that aims at laying new foundations for open-macroeconomic theory. The so-called "New Open Economy Macroeconomics" (NOEM) approach embeds micro-founded behavior into dynamic general equilibrium models. This provides a rich framework for thinking about exchange rate behavior and lays the groundwork for credible policy evaluation. This book shows how the most recent analytical tools proposed in this literature improve our understanding of exchange rate fluctuations. With contributions from an international array of thinkers, this impressive book shall interest both students and researchers involved with Macroeconomics, Money and Banking as well as all those interested in International Finance, including financial institutions.
This book extends recent theories of incomplete markets to investigate empirically the appropriate balance between the market and the state in the trade relations between developed and developing countries. The conclusion is that in an ideal world government intervention in foreign exchange and trade is necessary in developing countries in the early stages and inevitably decreases as development occurs. Rationing of foreign exchange prevents a 'soft currency distortion' that commonly afflicts developing countries and can turn comparative advantage trade into competitive devaluation trade, with severe losses of income and welfare. Yotopoulos finds that the level of underdevelopment narrowly circumscribes and conditions the extent to which free-market, free-trade, laissez-faire can be beneficial, contrary to the mainstream policy paradigm as currently applied. The analysis and tests draw on empirical research from seventy countries and four extended country studies to confirm the usefulness and validity of the theoretical framework.
In recent years, exchanges on both sides of the Atlantic have been extensively reengineered, and their organizational structures have changed from non-profit, membership organizations to for-profit, demutualized organizations. Concurrently, new alternative trading systems have emerged and the traditional functions of broker/dealer firms have evolved. How have these changes affected the delivery of that mission? How has the efficiency of capital raising in the IPO market been impacted? These are among the key questions addressed in this book, titled after the Baruch College Conference, The Economic Function of a Stock Market. Featuring contributions from a panel of scholars, academicians, policymakers, and industry leaders, this volume examines current issues affecting market quality, including challenges in the marketplace, growth opportunities, and IPO capital raising in the global economy.
The Zicklin School of Business Financial Markets Series presents the insights emerging from a sequence of conferences hosted by the Zicklin School at Baruch College for industry professionals, regulators, and scholars. Much more than historical documents, the transcripts from the conferences are edited for clarity, perspective and context; material and comments from subsequent interviews with the panelists and speakers are integrated for a complete thematic presentation. Each book is focused on a well delineated topic, but all deliver broader insights into the quality and efficiency of the U.S. equity markets and the dynamic forces changing them.?
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